For sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, leg presses at moderate to high reps are going to do the trick. University studies have shown time and again.
It's important to not worry so much about weight as about range of motion and getting the reps done. 12 to 25 would be a good place to start with 45 seconds intervals and about 4 to 6 sets. Folks get HUGE legs riding bikes, running sprints, and doing high rep squats and leg presses. The notion you need to do low reps to get size is WRONG, and not born out by good science.
You'll want to ask an expert about which movements to avoid and whether, or not, you should limit your range of motion to protect yourself from further injury. There's a fine line between post rehab, prehab, and smart conditioning.
If possible, you'll want to look at doing leg extensions, and leg curls, through a full range of motion, if your expert approves. It's not something anyone here can tell whether or not you should do.
Many folks injure their knees via lateral motion injuries (football, generally) and get them inflamed via high impact (running), or fail to condition properly (prehab) through a full range of motion.
It's important you consult with an expert to test what you can, and can't do. Your "wonky" knee may soon be much better if you can find the right training procedure.
You need to think of your knee joint as being at the end of a lever, and once you break 90 degrees there are some pretty strong forces working on the bursa in your knee. Some doctors recommend not breaking parallel, while others say a full range of motion.
For me, personally, at 50 years old, I've NEVER had problems with my knees and do full range of motion curls, and extensions, and rode a bike for many years. My legs were their biggest when I was 27 (28 inches) and riding my bike around all day in tenth gear. The continuous load along with calories and being the proper age, along with some genes, gave me huge legs. You may find that something similar will work well for you. Low impact exercises likely are indicated for you.