Here's what I do - dunno if this is helpful:
Back in March I planned what races I was going to do, and then worked back from the race dates to get sensible progression in terms of distance and the times I wanted to aim for. I then incorporated those weekly goal/distance targets into my weekly workout schedule. On a Sunday evening I print out my workouts for the week ahead - they're all Excel spreadsheets, and yes, it's paper-intensive - and then take each day's sheets with me to the gym/swimming pool (suitably waterproofed!)/running track and write what I actually do as I go along. I usually record reps, distance, time (effort and recovery), heart rate, details for free weights, etc., as appropriate. I then put them into a larger folder at the end of the day, and will, at some point, put the data back into Excel and try to draw some meaningful information from it all.
Obviously it would be trickier to do this cycling out in the open (as opposed to a turbo, as I often do), but it could be afterwards.
I could email examples of my spreadsheets, but to be honest, each person's needs are so individual that a log is probably best made by themselves anyway, and it doesn't take long. But you're welcome to look at mine.
I believe there are some logs that are available to download for free, others cost money.
Also, have you had a look at the Tacx website? There's a really good coaching section on there (tailored for their turbos, but useful anyway).