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Soaking Grains, Nuts and Seeds Helps To Reduce Phytic Acid Which Improves Nutrient Absorption Significantly For Minerals Such As Iron, Magnesium, Calcium and Zinc

  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE Apr 03, 2012 12:23 AM GMT
    According to my light research online, I've learned that soaking grains can significantly reduce the amount of phytase (or phytin or phytic acid) in foods.

    What is phytic acid: Phytic (phytin) acid is actually an antioxidant found in grains, nuts, seeds and many plants. Phytin is an indigestible enzyme and is a form of phosphorous needed for plants, seeds, etc. to provide themselves with the necessary energy to establish seedling growth and perpetuate their life cycle when the proper conditions are met. Certain animals such as cattle,sheep, goats, deer, camels, and roughly 145 other mammals have the capacity to digest phytic acid because of their multi-chambered stomachs and the special enzymatic actions that come with these ruminant mammals. However, monogastric animals (us humans, dogs, pigs...) don't have the capacity to fully digest phytic acid.

    In fact, phytic acid binds with certain vital minerals such as iron, calcium, zinc and magnesium which can lead to deficiencies in these nutrients for us humans. The purpose of soaking grains, nuts and seeds is to reduce the phytic acid and therefore improve nutrient absorption significantly.

    Here is a diagram of a ruminant digestive system to give you an idea:
    250px-Abomasum_%28PSF%29.png


    With the regurgitation of chewed food and the enzymatic action of a ruminant digestive track, certain animals do fine with eating grains high in phytic acid. Humans are not one of them, however.

    One of the ways to lower phytic acid is to soak grains in either plain water, salt water or water with an acid base. Creating an acid base is as easy as adding buttermilk, yogurt or kefir to the water to help acidify the environment and to improve phytic acid breakdown. This may seem like creating so much more work in the kitchen. But really all is necessary is an extra few minutes and some advanced planning in order to significantly reduce phytic acid in foods before actually preparing them hours later.

    Here is a chart that shows the reduction in phytic acid by soaking raw beans in water at a 140 degrees for eight to seventeen hours. Although it is cumbersome to maintain 140 degree water the best thing you can do is to change the water occasionally with hot tap water. By changing the water regularly, you help to reduce the possibility of fermentation and any bacterial buildup, so it's good to change the water in any event. Lastly, it is not recommended to soak beans in an acid base as it has been said that this creates a bad flavor for the beans.

    Soaking-temperature.jpg


    For more reading online on how to soak beans feel free to check out this site:
    http://www.rebuild-from-depression.com/soaking-beans

    For more directions on how to remove phytase from grains in general, read here:
    http://nourishedkitchen.com/soaking-grains-nuts-legumes/

    By the way, I tried soaking almonds for the first time in salt water last night and did so for roughly seventeen hours. I changed the water four times. The almonds inflated a bit and after baking them at a low temperature to dry them out (you want to make sure you dry nuts and seeds so as not to promote mold and fungal growth), I have to say that they were totally different. The texture is lighter and easier to chew. They're not as hard and from my observation, it looks like a couple of them tried to sprout also. icon_smile.gif

    So I thought I would share this for those of you that are on the fence about eating beans. Also, for those that eat Paleo diets, one of the things that Paleo enthusiasts warn against is the phytic acid content in foods. However, there is a bit of a contradiction since the Paleo diet advocates the liberal consumption of nuts and seeds (at least some of them do). Most nuts have a very high phytic acid content so it is pointless to eat liberal portions of almonds or other nuts when their phytic acid content is quite high. Luckily there is a method to lower it as I have outlined here.

    Happy eating, bitchuuuuzzzzz!
  • Posted by a hidden member.Log in to view his profile
    QUOTE Apr 03, 2012 3:30 AM GMT
    Aren't some dried grains and seeds available presoaked? I'm pretty sure the quinoa at Whole Foods is. If olive oil loses its nutritive value by heating, don't almonds?
  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE Apr 03, 2012 5:23 AM GMT
    eagermuscle saidAren't some dried grains and seeds available presoaked? I'm pretty sure the quinoa at Whole Foods is. If olive oil loses its nutritive value by heating, don't almonds?


    I think some foods come presoaked. It will say on the package if it is presoaked or not.

    Were you referring tot he drying process that I mentioned after soaking the almonds? I don't think this is too hot. Plus, if you buy any type of nut, more than likely it has had heat applied to it in some way. Unless it specifically says "raw" almonds (or whatever type of nut you buy).

    I had the oven on at 250 degrees for ten minutes just to dry the almonds out. That's really not too hot and not for a very long time. In the articles I provided you can also simply put your almonds outside and spread them on a sheet and let them dry in the sun. Ideally I would do this, but I don't have any outdoor space.

    The drying is crucial, however you do it, so as to avoid fungal growth.
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Apr 25, 2012 7:23 PM GMT
    How do you keep it at 140 degrees? Will a crock pot work? I would hate to leave my gas stove on all of the time. And leaving the oven on all that time does not seem like a very good option either, especially in the summer. hmmmm...sounds like too much work.
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Apr 25, 2012 7:25 PM GMT
    eagermuscle saidAren't some dried grains and seeds available presoaked? I'm pretty sure the quinoa at Whole Foods is. If olive oil loses its nutritive value by heating, don't almonds?


    I have read stuff that eating raw almonds is better than roasted almonds for the same reason.
  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE Apr 25, 2012 9:07 PM GMT
    metta8 saidHow do you keep it at 140 degrees? Will a crock pot work? I would hate to leave my gas stove on all of the time. And leaving the oven on all that time does not seem like a very good option either, especially in the summer. hmmmm...sounds like too much work.


    I have yet to figure that out. At this point I'm simply soaking them in the hottest water I can obtain from the tap. Then throughout the day (when I'm home) I change out the water.

    If I figure out a way to keep the water at 140 degrees I'll be sure to post it here.
  • Posted by a hidden member.Log in to view his profile
    QUOTE Apr 25, 2012 9:15 PM GMT
    MuchMoreThanMuscle said
    metta8 saidHow do you keep it at 140 degrees? Will a crock pot work? I would hate to leave my gas stove on all of the time. And leaving the oven on all that time does not seem like a very good option either, especially in the summer. hmmmm...sounds like too much work.


    I have yet to figure that out. At this point I'm simply soaking them in the hottest water I can obtain from the tap. Then throughout the day (when I'm home) I change out the water.

    If I figure out a way to keep the water at 140 degrees I'll be sure to post it here.


    You could try using an electric skillet or roaster oven, they all have thermostats on them to maintain the set temperature. Just find a used one at a thrift store, wash and sanitize it with some bleach first, then set it at 140 and do a test with a cooking/candy thermometer to make sure the setting is accurate and adjust as necessary. Easy.
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Apr 26, 2012 12:41 AM GMT
    ^

    use vinegar if you are going to do that. With the exception of a little bit I put in my pond, I don't believe in using chlorine bleach, which is a toxin....especially in the kitchen.
  • GWriter Posts: 1444
    QUOTE Apr 26, 2012 12:57 AM GMT
    Where did you first read about this? Sally Fallon, at the Weston Price Foundation, has good tips on soaking nuts--which are endorsed by Charles Poliquin, the very accomplished strength coach who happens to be paleo. http://www.thenourishinggourmet.com/2008/07/soaking-nuts.html
  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE Apr 29, 2012 12:28 PM GMT
    GWriter saidWhere did you first read about this? Sally Fallon, at the Weston Price Foundation, has good tips on soaking nuts--which are endorsed by Charles Poliquin, the very accomplished strength coach who happens to be paleo. http://www.thenourishinggourmet.com/2008/07/soaking-nuts.html


    I just happened to stumble onto soaking grains, nuts and legumes after sniffing around the net for information. I'm a information whore and when I'm not acting like a buffoon here on the threads I'm combing the net for info on all the things that interest me. icon_smile.gif
  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE Apr 29, 2012 12:30 PM GMT
    beneful1 said
    You could try using an electric skillet or roaster oven, they all have thermostats on them to maintain the set temperature. Just find a used one at a thrift store, wash and sanitize it with some bleach first, then set it at 140 and do a test with a cooking/candy thermometer to make sure the setting is accurate and adjust as necessary. Easy.


    I'll look into that, thank you.

    But I don't think this is going to be easy as most temperature settings have a minimal setting of 200 or so. I temperature of 140 is so low. I can't even set my oven to anything less than 250 degrees.
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Apr 29, 2012 3:08 PM GMT
    With raw foods, thy often say that thy do not heat anything over 110 degrees because they begin to loose nutrients. But I have not seen any studies to prove that.
  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE Apr 29, 2012 11:53 PM GMT
    Well from my light research I'm finding that soaking and cooking foods longer can help to reduce lectin in plant based foods which has correlation to inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Posted by a hidden member.Log in to view his profile
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 12:04 AM GMT
    Great info! I'm a nutrition junkie too. This gives me one more thing to explore. THANKS!
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 12:28 AM GMT
    Wow...the more I research in to this, the more complicated it gets.
    So many different opinions on it. I have no idea who is correct.

    Crock pots get too hot and do not have exact settings.
  • vegemike Posts: 142
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 12:52 AM GMT
    so interesting! Thanks for posting icon_smile.gif
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 5:54 PM GMT
    Chang, R., S. Schwimmer and H. K. Burr. 1977. Phytate: Removal from whoU>
    dry beans by enzyme hydrolysis and diffussion. J. Food Sei. 42(4):1098-
    llbl.

    http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/IND79045631/PDF


    http://alturl.com/4zhuj

    http://books.google.com/books?id=sd1VreXCp58C&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=chang+schwimmer+burr+1977&source=bl&ots=gFWgrDqY04&sig=RL8qmKzd-yHfnUz6qixwV7Tvjkw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7syeT8ytAYrjiAK-3IyzBA&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=chang%20schwimmer%20burr%201977&f=false


    Nutritional quality of legume seeds as affected by some physical treatments
    2. Antinutritional factors

    ". Tannins, phytic acid, TIA and oligosaccharides of mung beans (Mubarak, 2005), cowpeas (Udensi et al., 2007), black gram, red and white kidney beans (Rehman & Shah, 2005) were significantly reduced after boiling,
    autoclaving and microwave cooking
    . Fermentation of cereals and
    legumes appreciably reduced their phytate content owing to the
    endogenous phytase of seeds and that of added yeast and other
    useful microorganisms
    (Sandberg & Andlid, 2002). Infrared heating
    of seeds, called micronization
    , is applied to cereal grains to improve
    their digestibility, reduce their trypsin inhibitors and improve their
    palatability for animal feed (Hutton & Foxcroft, 1975)"



    "Phytic acid
    The effect of different treatments on the phytic acid content of
    legume seeds is shown in Table 2. All treatments significantly
    affected the phytic acid contents of seeds. There were no significant
    differences among soaking, roasting and micronization and among
    boiling, microwave cooking, autoclaving and fermentation in their
    effect. Soaking caused a 42.82–48.91% reduction in phytic acid
    content. This could be due to the fact that phytic acid in dried
    legumes exists wholly as a water-soluble salt (probably potassium
    phytate) (Crean & Haisman, 1963).
    Autoclaving and fermentation were the most effective in
    reducing phytic acid content by 65.04–70.49 and 66.83–68.94%,
    respectively. In contrast, the lowest reducing effect was that
    caused by micronization (31.86–37.62%) and roasting (35.25–
    40.15%). The observed reduction in phytic acid content of legume
    seeds during heat treatments may be partly due to the heatlabile nature of phytic acid and the formation of insoluble
    complexes between phytate and other components (Udensi et al., 2007). Crean and Haisman (1963) reported that in cooking,
    phytic acid combines with the calcium and magnesium in the
    seeds to form insoluble calcium and magnesium phytates.
    Fermentation of cereals and legumes has been reported to cause
    appreciable reductions in the phytate content owing to endogenous phytase of both raw ingredients, inherent microorganisms
    and that of added yeast which hydrolyses phytic acid into
    inositol and orthophosphate (Reddy & Pierson, 1994; Sandberg &
    Andlid, 2002). Gustafsson and Sandberg (1995) found that
    fermentation of pre-soaked dry beans (P. vulgaris L.) for 48 h,
    without the addition of a starter culture, caused a 68% reduction
    in phytic acid. The greater reduction was attributed to the
    reduction in pH to the levels below 4.5 which enhanced the
    hydrolysis of antinutrients (Conn, 1973)."

    http://alturl.com/aaiqf

    http://193.146.160.29/gtb/sod/usu/$UBUG/repositorio/10311794_Khattab.pdf
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 6:05 PM GMT
    I wonder at what levels they are considered to be safe/healthy. No one is saying that they should be entirely removed.
  • Posted by a hidden member.Log in to view his profile
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 6:07 PM GMT
    MuchMoreThanMuscle said. I'm a whore


    WOW!!! icon_razz.gificon_razz.gificon_razz.gif
  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 6:49 PM GMT
    ECnAZ said
    MuchMoreThanMuscle said. I'm a whore


    WOW!!! icon_razz.gificon_razz.gificon_razz.gif


    You, kind sir, have altered my post to make me look trashy. Not cool, betch! icon_cool.gif
  • Posted by a hidden member.Log in to view his profile
    QUOTE Apr 30, 2012 7:02 PM GMT
    MuchMoreThanMuscle said
    ECnAZ said
    MuchMoreThanMuscle said. I'm a whore


    WOW!!! icon_razz.gificon_razz.gificon_razz.gif


    You, kind sir, have altered my post to make me look trashy. Not cool, betch! icon_cool.gif



    icon_lol.gificon_lol.gif Maybe wishful thinking on my part.. icon_redface.gificon_redface.gif
  • MuchMoreThanM... Posts: 21334
    QUOTE May 01, 2012 1:56 AM GMT
    Well, I used to be one but that was years ago. icon_wink.gif

    Nahz eyz awl virchewez n shi....
  • The_Guruburu Posts: 895
    QUOTE Jul 14, 2013 9:18 AM GMT
    I knew about soaking nuts, but not grains. Thanks for the info.

    On a related note, the first time I soaked walnuts, I was blown away by how sweet and tender they were. The tannins all floated up to the top, leaving the nutty goodness for me to enjoy. I wonder how grains fare.
  • metta8 Posts: 24112
    QUOTE Jul 14, 2013 4:02 PM GMT
    ^
    Good to know. I have a friend that recently started having trouble digesting nuts and I was reading about soaking nuts can release the natural chemicals that can make it harder to digest. She loves Brazil nuts. I'm hoping that it will work for that as well.




    Soaking Beans Directions from OP:

    "soaking raw beans in water at a 140 degrees for eight to seventeen hours. Although it is cumbersome to maintain 140 degree water the best thing you can do is to change the water occasionally with hot tap water. By changing the water regularly, you help to reduce the possibility of fermentation and any bacterial buildup, so it's good to change the water in any event. Lastly, it is not recommended to soak beans in an acid base as it has been said that this creates a bad flavor for the beans."
  • Posted by a hidden member.Log in to view his profile
    QUOTE Jul 14, 2013 10:49 PM GMT
    I remember back when I was a chile that the kindly ice cream ladies at the Sundae Emporium would offer one a choice of either dry or wet nuts.....I usually chose the dry...who knew?