OK. For $10,000 or a little less, you can get a good system. I, too, have tinnitus (from one stupid day of shooting skeet without earplugs- how dumb is that?) and yes, you will know the difference in sound and love having a good system. It sounds like you listen to a lot of acoustical music so do not go the Bose route. Bose have pretty good high end and a LOT of very low end but absolutely no speakers to play everything in between. Works for electronic music but not symphony, guitar, woodwinds, etc. Try Bowers and Wilkins speakers (usually called B&W). You can't get them at the big box stores; you have to go to a stereo store. Get a full surround group, two front plus center, two back, and a subwoofer. Add to that a mid-range "Receiver" like Marantz or Onkyo but don't go over the top because for $10 grand, you're better off putting your money into speakers. The mid-range stuff is good. If you want to go up a bit, I have Rotel which I love but that is true component with separate amp, pre-amp, radio and power washer.
Music delivery system is trickier. You can get a good CD player but most DVD players can also play CD's so you might as well do that. You won't be able to pre-program certain tracks and multiple DVD players generally break and aren't designed for sound quality. The only way you can get the control over song selection you describe is by going digital. There are some pretty good digital boxes you can buy for not much that you download to, either from your phone or the net or your laptop, but the problem with all of that is all those devices compress the music and the playback, while fine for earbuds, just doesn't have the quality or distinction you get from CD's. Which is why you want a good system to begin with.
So I'd recommend both a digital playback box, a DVD player (Blu-ray, of course), a mid-price receiver, and put 2/3 of your cash into the speakers. I like B&W but there are others. It is a matter of personal taste so do this: Pick out your favorite acoustical CD, maybe a concerto, and spend a couple of week-ends going around to good sterio stores. Make them play you YOUR CD, not their stuff which is specifically engineered to sound good on their system. And then just listen. Don't be shy about time or volume. Make them leave you alone to listen. Then see what sound shapes you like best. Compare by using the same CD for them all. You'll find what you like. Oh, and the good stores will bargain a bit for a complete set of speakers. Have fun! I spent two years looking at stuff before I bought.