The Untold History of the United States [WWII Forward]; Executive Producers: Oliver Stone, Rob Wilson, and Tara Tremaine (Source: Netflix)

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    Mar 28, 2017 5:14 AM GMT
    Chapter 1: World War II
    The atomic bomb turned the refuge of the founding fathers into a militarized state.

    There was German Nazism, Italian Fascism, Japanese Militarism.

    60-65 million people killed during WWII.

    WWII began in 1931 with industrialized Japan attacking Manchuria.
    Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935, but US, Britain, and France did little by way of protest. (Hitler concluded the three Allies did not want to go to war.)
    Hitler marched into the de-militarized Rhineland. Between France and Germany was the Rhineland. France could have put down Germany's advance at this time.
    Now, we go to Spain and the Spanish Civil War.
    Francisco Franco overthrew the elected republic to establish a fascist regime.
    American Catholics rallied to support Franco! So, did Hitler and Mussolini. Stalin sent arms.
    The U.S., UK, and France did nothing.
    GM, Firestone, and Texaco supported the Fascists.
    Texaco also supplied oil to Hitler.
    2,800 U.S. citizens snuck into Spain to fight the Fascists. Close to 1,000 did not return.
    The Spanish Republic failed, Franco won in the Spring of 1939.

    Stalin implored the U.S., UK, and France to unite against Hitler-Mussolini-Franco.
    As Hitler marched on, Stalin feared a Germany-Poland alliance attacking Russia.
    Hitler invaded Poland. England and France declared war. Stalin invaded Poland.

    1940: Hitler assaults England from the air. Enter Churchill.

    Americans wanted Britain and France to win the war but 95% of Americans did not want to enter the war.

    1940 - Roosevelt said our boys would not go to war.

    Japan joins Germany and Italy.

    1941 Hitler reverses the shame of WWI.
    But Hitler makes a mistake: he goes for Russia.

    (German knights fought the Slavs/Russians during the Crusades.)

    Ukrane fell in 1941.

    Churchill, swallowed his hate of communism to prevent the fall of Russia to Germany.

    Truman did not like the Germans and he did not like the Russians.

    Leader transferred from Churchill to Roosevelt.

    Japan went to Indo-China instead of crushing Russia with Germany.

    December 7, 1941. Japan attacks U.S. because it wanted to get its oil from the Dutch East Indies but Pearl Harbor was a thread to that, so Japan attacked it.

    Hitler declared war on the U.S. because of the Germany-Italy-Japan Tripartite agreement.

    The U.S. went after Germany leaving Japan to attack Singapore and Malaysia.

    The U.S. produced more airplanes than Japan did.

    The Manhattan Project was turned over to the government.

    Supposedly, Germany abandoned nuclear bomb research in 1942 while the US rushed on with development.

    England did not want to attack Germany directly.

    The Red Army pushes Germany back, especially because Japan marched south, allowing Siberian divisions to go to Moscow.

    When Leningrad was under attack by Germany, citizens of Leningrad ate soup made from the glue of wallpaper, from rats, and from fellow human beings.
    Shostakovitz's 7th Symphony commemorates Leningrad. They kept playing this piece until starvation took over.

    Women and children worked 18 hour days.

    Winter 1942. Stalingrad: Not one step back policy of Stalin.
    Nazi invincibility is defeated.

    Germany lost 6 million fighting Russia but just 1 million fighting the US and Britain. The US did not win the war more than Russia did.



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    Apr 02, 2017 11:40 PM GMT
    What mental health
    What mental illness
    under those circumstances.
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    Apr 03, 2017 12:03 AM GMT
    1942 - Stalin: Time Magazine's Man of the Year
    Russia also got a Life Magazine cover.

    Chapter Two: Roosevelt, Truman, and Wallace

    Roosevelt and Churchill met in Casablanca without Stalin.
    (Hm, the film Casablanca is relevant to that.)
    Roosevelt and Churchill decided to attack Sicily, continuing to avoiding the serious conflict w/ Germany that the Russians did not avoid.
    Little damage to the Nazis there.

    Next, there was a Tehran, Iran Conference with Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill present.

    When Russia moved east into Poland, it discovered for the world the German death camps. The film images are devastating.

    Russia advanced westward.
    The Second Front from the United States (and UK?) comes on the scene.

    US Vice President Wallace was against colonialism. He did not like Churchill, the British Empire, and Anglo-Saxon superiority.




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    Apr 03, 2017 12:20 AM GMT
    Jimmy Byrnes, Senator - South Carolina vs. Wallace
    Jimmy Byrnes was into White superiority. Wallace was for the common man.

    There were many labor strikes in the U.S, at this time.
    Corporations made growing war profits but froze worker wages.

    In Detroit, integration on the assembly line was problematic (understatement).

    Truman came in as VP nominee washing away the Bynes-Wallace dilemma. - 1944 DNC Convention in Chicago.

    "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" is about Wallace.
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    Apr 03, 2017 12:35 AM GMT
    War with Germany over, Russia joined the US against Japan.

    April 12, 1945 Roosevelt dies. Truman becomes president. And Truman did not know the US was building the atomic bomb.

    Truman relied on Byrnes, not Wallace. Byrnes told Truman about the a-bomb.



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    Apr 03, 2017 12:45 AM GMT
    General Motors President Charles Wilson
    said we needed a permanent war economy.

    The Veterans did not want to antagonize the Russians as the Truman administration wanted to do.
    The USSR was a trustworthy ally, delivering more than asked in military terms.

    Truman was called 4-eyes and sissy as a boy. So, he overcompensated with Russia.
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    Apr 03, 2017 12:54 AM GMT
    May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders. May 8, celebration.

    Alamagorda, New Mexico - a-bomb needs to be tested

    Chapter 3: The Bomb
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    Apr 14, 2017 2:22 AM GMT
    The Japanese committed some atrocities not just against the Chinese but against US and Filipino prisoners of war.

    Truman did not think highly of Blacks and Japanese.

    Okinawa: an island in southern Japan, the largest of the Ryukyu Islands; chief town, Naha. An important World War II battle here in 1945 allowed the victorious Allies to establish bases close to the Japanese mainland.

    Mental Health? Many civilian cities were heavily bombed in WWII.

    Britain's Sir. Arthur "Bomber" Harris made no distinction between military targets and civilian targets.

    Hamburg.

    1945 - Dresden (Britain bombed at night, the US by day)

    Lamay? bombed Japan worse. a/k/a Terror Bombing / 300 planes over Tokyo / Tokyo Raid, Lemay's Masterpiece

    At Toyama, Japan, 99% of the city was destroyed.

    Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.
    Curtis LeMay is credited with designing and implementing an effective, but also controversial, systematic strategic bombing campaign in the Pacific theater of World War II. During the war, he was known for planning and executing a massive fire bombing campaign against cities in Japan and a crippling minelaying campaign in Japan's internal waterways. After the war, he initiated the Berlin airlift, then reorganized the Strategic Air Command (SAC) into an effective instrument of nuclear war. He served as Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force from 1961 until his retirement in 1965.
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    Apr 14, 2017 2:24 AM GMT
    In a movie, Gregory Peck tells the soldiers, some of you will die, stop making plans, consider yourselves already dead.
    A healthy mind has to accept that condition of war.
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    Apr 14, 2017 2:36 AM GMT
    So, Japan was already defeated before the two a-bombs were dropped.
    It would destroy American moralism and create a nuclear arms race with Russia.
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    Apr 14, 2017 2:41 AM GMT
    Potsdam, July 1945
    Truman wanted the Soviets in the war in August 1945.

    But by the end of 1944, Japan was through.

    Hanged like Mussolini in Italy? Not for the Japanese emperor.

    Truman bossed Stalin after Truman got the positive results of the a-bomb. [Truman's change of demeanor].

    So Truman was going to reneg on FDR's agreement with the USSR.
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    Apr 14, 2017 2:56 AM GMT
    6 of 7 5-star officers thought the a-bombs were reprehensible and militarily unnecessary.

    "The atomic bomb had nothing to do with the end of the war."

    Aug 6, 1945, 8:15 am - Enola Gay drops the first a-bomb [Uranium] - Hiroshima

    Mushroom 40,000 feet high

    5,400 degrees Fahrenheit

    Truman was jubilant.

    The Japanese did not surrender.

    Therefore, Aug 9, Stalin's Red Army attacks Japan on 3 fronts.

    Later on August 9, Plutonium bomb dropped on Nagasaki, so we sort of forget what Stalin did.

    14 minutes left to this episode/chapter.
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    Apr 24, 2017 1:59 AM GMT
    9/21/45
    Former VP Henry A. Wallace allied himself with Stimson
    Wallace put forth the idea that we didn't have a monopoly on the bomb because it really originated in Europe.
    More Racism: "The Russians could not be trusted because they were like the Japanese, oriental in their thinking."
    When asked Oppenheimer, then himself, when might the Russians develop the nuclear bomb, Truman answered his own question, never.
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    Apr 24, 2017 2:02 AM GMT
    How did the Russians react to the two a-bombings in Japan?

    It set their heads spinning: they became neurotic and believed they could not trust the Allies.
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    Apr 24, 2017 2:13 AM GMT
    Condoleeza Rice thought Truman was her man of the century.

    = = =

    What would have happened if Wallace became FDR's last VP rather than Truman?
    No use of atomic bombs, no arms race?

    = = =

    Chapter 4: The Cold War, 1945-1950
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    Apr 25, 2017 8:09 AM GMT
    1945
    Death Toll for the U.S.: 405,000
    Death Toll for the Soviet Union: 27,000,000
    = = =
    World Bank and IMF created.
    = = =
    WWII left 70 Million Dead in Europe and Asia. 2/3rds Civilians [Mental Health?]

    = = =
    Due to the poverty in places where the war battles were fought, there was fear people would turn to the state to make their lives tolerable.
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    Apr 25, 2017 8:14 AM GMT
    Britain became a client state of the U.S.
    Russia received no where near the aid package from the U.S. that Britain received.
    Russia was greatly disappointed, after helping the U.S. and Britain defeat the Nazis and Japan.


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    Apr 25, 2017 8:23 AM GMT
    Churchill with his Iron Curtain speech backstabbed Russia in Truman's home state, showing superiority that only English-speakers should decide the fate of the whole world.
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    Apr 25, 2017 8:26 AM GMT
    The World
    under Enlightened, Anglo-Saxon, Atomic Bomb Auspices
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    Apr 25, 2017 8:28 AM GMT
    Truman claimed he told Russia (Gromyko) to get out of Iran, away from Iranian oil, or we will drop the atomic bomb on you.
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    Apr 25, 2017 8:38 AM GMT
    Okay: American History 101, what is The Truman Doctrine?

    With the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces. The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from its usual stance of withdrawal from regional conflicts not directly involving the United States, to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts.

    The Truman Doctrine arose from a speech delivered by President Truman before a joint session of Congress on March 12, 1947. The immediate cause for the speech was a recent announcement by the British Government that, as of March 31, it would no longer provide military and economic assistance to the Greek Government in its civil war against the Greek Communist Party. Truman asked Congress to support the Greek Government against the Communists. He also asked Congress to provide assistance for Turkey, since that nation, too, had previously been dependent on British aid.

    - Office of the Historian/United States of America
    history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/truman-doctrine
    = = =

    Winston Churchill with his Iron Curtain speech and Truman firing Wallace are responsible for beyond poor relations with Russia and the arms race.
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    Apr 25, 2017 8:54 AM GMT
    Truman force the resignation of Byrne and replaced him with George C. Marshall.

    Office of the Historian / United States of America,

    What is the Marshall Plan, 1948?

    In the immediate post-World War II period, Europe remained ravaged by war and thus susceptible to exploitation by an internal and external Communist threat. In a June 5, 1947, speech to the graduating class at Harvard University, Secretary of State George C. Marshall issued a call for a comprehensive program to rebuild Europe. Fanned by the fear of Communist expansion and the rapid deterioration of European economies in the winter of 1946–1947, Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act in March 1948 and approved funding that would eventually rise to over $12 billion for the rebuilding of Western Europe.

    The Marshall Plan generated a resurgence of European industrialization and brought extensive investment into the region. It was also a stimulant to the U.S. economy by establishing markets for American goods. Although the participation of the Soviet Union and East European nations was an initial possibility, Soviet concern over potential U.S. economic domination of its Eastern European satellites and Stalin’s unwillingness to open up his secret society to westerners doomed the idea. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the U.S. Congress would have been willing to fund the plan as generously as it did if aid also went to Soviet Bloc Communist nations.

    Thus the Marshall Plan was applied solely to Western Europe, precluding any measure of Soviet Bloc cooperation. Increasingly, the economic revival of Western Europe, especially West Germany, was viewed suspiciously in Moscow. Economic historians have debated the precise impact of the Marshall Plan on Western Europe, but these differing opinions do not detract from the fact that the Marshall Plan has been recognized as a great humanitarian effort. Secretary of State Marshall became the only general ever to receive a Nobel Prize for peace. The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy.

    https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/marshall-plan
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    Apr 25, 2017 9:13 AM GMT
    1949 - Russia tested their atomic bomb.

    China becomes Communist.

    June 1950, North Korea attacks South Korea.

    Korea was outside of NATO, but China became Communist, so the US did a police action in Korea.
    3-Yr Korean "War"
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    Apr 25, 2017 9:16 AM GMT
    NATO was provocation for the Cold War.
    The US re-militarized Germany.
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    Apr 25, 2017 9:22 AM GMT
    The documentary seems to say after the two a-bombs were dropped on Japan, the following number of U.S. tests were conducted:

    1947 - 13 bombs
    1948 - 50 bombs
    (1949 - Russia tests its atomic bomb)
    1950 - 300 bombs

    Chapter 5: The '50s: Eisenhower, the Bomb & the Third World