The best time to gylogen reload / protein push PWO (Post Workout) is immediately. The "Golden Hour", as it's called, is the best time to put nutrition into the muscles. In fact, uptake is significantly higher during that golden hour.
About every 2 to 2.5 hours, all day long, every day with up to 10 to 12 meals, is ideal for making serious gains in mass and weight.
Bring the carbs, down, and the poly, and mono, fats up to work on weight reduction, coupled with interval training just above ketosis (you can buy Ketostix just about anywhere). Many folks like first thing in the morning with about 10 grams to 20 grams of simple carbs and about 50 grams of protein immediately before first thing in the morning. First thing in the morning, your GH is highest, and your blood sugar lowest, and you have the whole rest of the day awake so the metabolic activation first thing keeps the furnace hot all day long. Likely, you won't be near Ketosis. Unless you really have your science down, it's probably not worth worrying about to much, but, something you should know.
One of the worst things you can do is not eat immediately after resistance training. You miss your golden opportunity.
Water will help with digestion, and elimination as well as help with performance, and fat mobilization.
Fiber is essential to keep food moving threw. I prefer Citrucel mixed in with grits (0 sugar, 0 fat, and 22 grams of complex carbs). Just FYI, many morbidly obese, carry up to 30 pounds of food in their digestive system. It literally rots and poisons them.
You can find more by googling on post work out glycogen load, and post workout insulin push. Any serious bodybuilding board will have a multitude of articles all about this stuff.
You can watch the Discovery Health Channel for information on the morbidly obese, or, of course, google on that, as well.
As I've said many times, this is all just science, and involves research, and educating yourself in how to manipulate your body for the desired result. Food is one of the tools.
One additional item: severe caloric restriction is a bad idea in that it encourages the feast / famine response (one of the primary reasons fat folks fail in diet in addition to how they view food). Training your body how to become a fat-storing machine is really a very bad idea.
The keys to lean mass gains is to remain in an anabolic state as much as possible (common sense 101). You accomplish this by small meals often and at moderate blood glucose levels, with enough protein to allow you to grow. Skipping meals is not a good idea, although, in modern society, sometimes hard to avoid.
Resistance training will increase your lean muscle mass, strengthen your bones, and increase your BMR (Base Metabolic Rate) as you grow older. Let me explain a bit more: if I have 10% fat at 200#, I have 180# (200 - 20 = 180) of lean muscle mass (it's called that). Each pound of muscle burns 15 calories per day, every day, at rest (there are several theories here, I know, and age variances, etc.). So 15 * 180 = 2700. I.e., I need 2700 just to stay the same, without any activity. If I add another 1200 per day for growth, and activity, I'm up to 3900 calories per day, just to stay the same, or to gain. Fat folks, and skinny guys, too, have a hard time grasping the fact that YOU HAVE TO FUEL THE FURNACE. That's why I can gobble down food. All that muscle just sits there and burns calories.
Your protein should remain fairly consistent, unless you're dieting hard. Carbs can vary with your activity level. You don't need to drop your protein on non-workout days. In fact, if you think about it clearly, you'll understand that's when you're recovering and the building process is actually occurring. Non-workout days, a bit less carbs, perhaps (unless you're carb cycling / loading), and a bit more protein.