I am a bit lucky that my back grows the best and fastest of all my body parts. That being said, I put in serious work. The way I see it, back work breaks down into 2 main types of exercise: rows and pulldowns. I suppose you could put shrugs in either the back or the shoulder category (usually the latter), but I do back and shoulders on the same day, so no matter. I keep back work to a total of 3 or 4 exercises.
For me, also, t-bar rows are great, but lately I do bent over barbell rows using at the squat rack. The 2 exercises are similar. Overhand grip (I know, some trainers say use underhand, but I feel it badly stresses my forearms from the elbows down). About 5 or 6 sets of 5, progressively heavier weights as high as I can go.
I alternate (every 6-8 weeks) between wide-grip pulldowns and weighted chinups. Due to wrist problems, I use an overhand grip. 6-8 reps, 5-6 sets, progressively heavier weights.
Also, I do narrow grip pulldowns, 3 or 4 sets of 8, to a moderately heavy weight. In place of the narrow pulldowns, I sometimes substitute pressdowns with a bar on a cable. I can do them with arms straight out, pushing the bar down (overhand) or underhand, pulling the bar down. Either way, the point is to focus your effort on your lats, not your hands and forearms. 1 warmup, light weight, 2 sets medium weight. You can't go very heavy on these.
I frequently add single-side bent over dumbbell rows as the fourth exercise, depending on how much time I have. Dumbbell rows might be superfluous, but I like doing them. I alternate sides (left-right, left-right), 4 sets of 5-8, with progressively heavy weight, but not to a max weight.
I mix up the order of stuff each time (the old "trick your nervous system" theory). But I always start with either the pulldowns/chins or the bar rowing.
As I currently do shoulders the same day - normally after the back work - I start with rear delts first everytime, when I can give them the most strength. I start with dumbbells, then go to the reverse pec-dec. This exercise ties in the rear delts to your upper back, of course, but I believe it also hits the upper inner back if you use a reverse pec-dec. A comment here: most guys do not do rear delts and it shows as lack of shoulder thickness. If you do them, you will see the difference and your shoulders will be noticed. You will be surprised how much muscle you can put on in your shoulders and how powerful you will look.
Then I go on to side flyes and then shrugs. I don't bother with militaries much (due to shoulder injury & pain), though sometimes I do single sided dumbbell pressups. My theory is that you get plenty of front delt work from incline and flat bench pressing.
I hope that helps. I am sure that other guys here will have plenty of other good ideas for you.